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Linguistics > CL Style Guide > II. References
- If the author's name occurs in the text, the date is enclosed in parentheses:
- 〈 Hobbs (1978) first proposed that ... 〉
- 〈 ... first proposed in Hobbs (1978) 〉
- When the reference itself is within parentheses, and the parentheses enclose
nothing other than references, the phrase e.g. or cf., or the words see or see
also, the date is not enclosed in parentheses (note that no comma separates
the author's name from the date):
- 〈 (Hobbs 1978) 〉
- 〈 (e.g., Hobbs 1978) 〉
- 〈 (cf. Hobbs 1978) 〉
- 〈 (see Hobbs 1978) 〉
- 〈 (see also Hobbs 1978) 〉
- If the parentheses enclose other material, the date is enclosed in square
brackets rather than parentheses:
- 〈 (e.g., Cassell et al.  and much research since then) 〉
- The word page is spelled out in citations:
- 〈 (Stuckard 2000, page 240) 〉
- For works with one, two, or three authors, all authors' surnames are given
in the in-text citation. For works with four or more authors, et al. (in roman
type) replaces the surnames of all authors except the first. (The names of all
authors are provided in the corresponding reference entry, regardless of the
number of authors.)
- 〈 (Smith 2000) 〉
- 〈 (Smith and Jones 2000) 〉
- 〈 (Smith, Jones, and Wexler 2000) 〉
- 〈 (Smith et al. 2000) 〉
References should be listed alphabetically by author at the end of
the article according to the following style. All authors must (where possible)
have first names specified.
- Article in journal:
- Akmajian, Adrian and Ray Jackendoff. 1970. Coreferentiality and stress.
Linguistic Inquiry, 1(1):124–126.
- Woods, William A. 1970. Transition network grammars for natural language
analysis. Communications of the ACM, 13(10):591–606.
- Altenberg, Bengt. 1987. Prosodic Patterns in Spoken English: Studies in the
Correlation between Prosody and Grammar for Text-to-Speech Conversion,
volume 76 of Lund Studies in English. Lund University Press, Lund.
- Winograd, Terry. 1972. Understanding Natural Language. Academic Press, New York.
- Article in edited collection/Chapter in book:
- Cutler, Anne. 1983. Speakers' conception of the functions of prosody. In A.
Cutler and D. R. Ladd, editors, Prosody: Models and Measurements.
Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pages 79–92.
- Sgall, Petr. 1970. L'ordre des mots et la semantique. In Ferenc Kiefer, editor,
Studies in Syntax and Semantics. D. Reidel, New York, pages 231–240.
- Jurafsky, Daniel, and James H. Martin. 2000. Speech and Language Processing,
chapter 1. Prentice Hall.
- Technical report:
- Appelt, Douglas E. 1982. Planning natural-language utterances to satisfy
multiple goals. Technical Report 259, SRI.
- Robinson, Jane J. 1964. Automatic parsing and fact retrieval: A comment on
grammar, paraphrase, and meaning. Memorandum RM-3892-PR, The RAND
Corporation, Santa Monica, CA.
- Thesis or dissertation:
- Baart, J. L. G. 1987. Focus, Syntax, and Accent Placement. Ph.D. thesis,
University of Leyden, Leyden.
- Spärck Jones, Karen. 1964 Synonymy and Semantic Classification. D.Phil.
dissertation, Cambridge University, Cambridge, England.
- Cahn, Janet E. 1989. Generating expression in synthesized speech. Master's
thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, May.
- Unpublished item:
- Ayers, Gail M. 1992. Discourse functions of pitch range in spontaneous and
read speech. Paper presented at the Linguistic Society of America annual
- Conference proceedings:
- Benoit, Christian and Gerard Bailly, editors. 1989. Proceedings of the Eurpoean
Speech Communication Association Workshop on Speech Synthesis, Autrans,
September. European Speech Communication Association. Institut de la
Communication Parlee, Grenoble.
- Paper published in conference proceedings:
- Krahmer, Emiel, M. Swerts, Mariet Theune, and M. Weegels. 1999. Error
spotting in human-machine interactions. In Proceedings of EUROSPEECH-99,
pages 1423–1426, Budapest.
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Last Modified: 14th March 2011